Publication: Western Electrician
Chicago, IL, United States
CANADIAN ELECTRICAL ASSOCIATION.
As previously announced, the seventeenth annual convention of the Canadian Electrical Association took place in Montreal, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, September 11th, 12th and 13th, At the beginning it gave evidence of being a pronounced success, and when the proceedings were fully under way there was no room whatever for doubt. The total number registered was 261 in addition to a large number of ladies.
The week attracted to Montreal electricians from all parts of Canada and many from the United States, as conventions were held by the Canadian Electrical Association, Canadian Street Railway Association and the Maritime Electrical Association. The electrical exhibition was also a great attraction, being pronounced by visitors from the United States to be the equal for its size of anything ever attempted in that country. For the success of this exhibition too much credit cannot be given Mr. R. S. Kelsch, the vice-president and managing director, who gave his personal attention to the undertaking in a manner to insure the best possible results.
To revert to the Electrical Association convention, the chair was taken promptly at 10:30 on Wednesday by the president, Mr. R. G. Black. Unnecessary preliminaries were dispensed with, and, after a few brief remarks and the reading of the minutes of the last convention, the president delivered his address, which contained much food for thought. He emphasized the fact that at certain hours of each day every plant was taxed to its utmost capacity — the point known as the peak. The difficulty was that every plant had to be equipped to supply peak business, while during the rest of the day a large proportion of the plant was practically idle. With this factor considered, and the continually rising price of labor and almost every other element that entered into the commercial use of electrical energy, Mr. Black pointed out that the problem of earning dividends was ever growing harder instead of easier. As a way out of the difficulty he suggested the extension of the use of electric energy for electric heating and cooking and other household purposes. The result of the address was to impress the members with the fact, that, far from any general reduction in prices of electric power or light being within sight, the producers of electric energy must seek to extend their markets in order to make a reasonable profit at present rates.
The president then submitted the constitution of the association as revised by the managing committee, which was approved by the convention. The important feature in the new constitution is the formation of what might be termed a lighting section, following somewhat the plans of the National Electric Light Association. The new clauses covering membership are as follows:
Membership.— (a) The association shall Consist of Honorary and Active members.
(b) Honorary members shall be any gentlemen who shall be elected as such by a two-thirds vote of Active members present at any sitting of any annual convention.
(c) Active members shall be owners, part owners, or directors, managers, superintendents, engineers or other employes of electrical undertakings, electrical engineers, students in electrical engineering, gentlemen engaged in electrical education or in the manufacture or sale of electrical apparatus or supplies, electrical contractors, and all other gentlemen whom the managing committee shall consider eligible as members.
(d) All Active members who are owners, part-owners, managers, superintendents, engineers or other employes of electrical undertakings for the sale of electric light or power, owned by individuals or joint stock companies, who shall produce certificates from the owners or managers. thereof that said persons are authorized to represent them shall constitute the executive section of the association.
(e) Active members who do not form part of the executive section shall not be eligible to office in this association, and shall not be permitted to attend meetings of the executive session. This section does not apply to the offices of secretary and treasurer.
The report of the secretary-treasurer, Mr. T. S. Young, showed a balance in the treasury on May 31st last, the close of the association year, of $1,120. The membership at that date was 302. This, the report states, would appear to be a decrease as compared with the previous year, and a few words of explanation may be permitted. Until last year no steps were taen [sic] taken by the executive to remove from the membership roll the names of persons, who, although neglecting to send in their written resignations as required by the constitution, evidently did not consider themselves bona fide members of the association. The adoption of a less generous policy by the executive resulted in the removal of a large number of names from the register. That the association has made substantial progress, however, is shown by the fact that 62 new members joined during the year, and 28 members from May 31st to August 30th, or a total of 90 new members since the last convention. The present membership is 320. The report pointed out that the use of electric light in Canada has increased over 100 per cent. in five years.
The first of a varied programme of papers was then reached. It was entitled "Electric Heating and Cooking Devices," the author, Mr. A. B. Lambe, of the Canadian General Electric Company, delivering it extempore, in a very acceptable manner and exhibiting numerous devices calculated to increase the revenue of the central station. The advantages to the consumer, he argued, were such that though the cost of operation might be slightly larger than by the old system, the results were such as would insure their use, once the people realized the advantages. The results to the electric companies would be that, during the day hours, when the electric light was little used, the power could be applied to other purposes, and thus the general demand would be much more nearly equalized than at present.
At the afternoon session two papers were read, as follows: "Trials of the Operating Man," by Mr. M. A. Sammett of the Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company, and "Three-wire Generators," by Mr. B. T. McCormick, of Allis Chalmers-Bullock. Mr. Sammett's paper is printed in another part of this issue.
In his paper Mr. McCormick said that three-wire generators can be operated in multiple with one another, or in multiple with two-wire generators, and it is often convenient to operate a 120-volt machine in multiple across one side of 240-volt three-wire systems, to maintain a better balance, in case that side is unloaded. The two-wire generator with rotating direct-current balancers, as a competitor of the three-wire generator, possesses a great many good points, but the cheapness, simplicity and compactness of the three-wire generator are points not to be overlooked in deciding on a three-wire system.
In the evening the members visited the electrical exhibition as the guests of the management.
A paper on "High-tension Insulators from an Engineering and Commercial Standpoint," by Mr. C. E. Delafield of the Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, was the first on the programme for Thursday. As an illustration of the possibilities of delivering power at 150,000 volts, Mr. Delafield said it would be possible to deliver the power generated at Niagara Falls economically to Boston, New York or Philadelphia, and, apparently, the principal hindrance to this consummation at the present tittle is in the fact that there is not on the market what might be termed a successful insulator for this enormous voltage, although the merits of a number of different types of insulators are at the present time being advocated for this purpose. An ideal insulator for all conditions of high-voltage stress should be one that would take care of climatic conditions, such as fogs, dust deposits, salt spray, etc., and should have as few still-air spaces as possible.
What might be termed a lamp session was next taken up. A. B. Fleming of the Canadian Westinghouse Company presenting a paper on "The Value of the Nernst Lamp to the Central Station," and J. M. Robertson of the, Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company one on "Incandescent Lamps." Mr. Robertson presented a short description of several types of lamps which are at present on the market, giving an outline of their characteristics and limitations, and comparing them as comparative new comers in the electrical field with the older and more familiar carbon lamp. The weakness of the carbon-filament lamp, he said, was the fact that its operating temperature must be comparatively low, not more than about 1,800° F. The best commercial efficiency which this lamp has attained is 3.1 watts per candle, but by far the larger part of the lighting business is done with lamps which consume 3.5 watts per candle or more.
The metallized-filament lamp was the result of an effort to produce a carbon filament which could be operated at a higher temperature. Mr. Robertson's paper was illustrated, showing curves of resistance of the carbon, metallized, tantalum and tungsten filaments. The metallized filament, on account of its reduced diameter, as well as the increased brittleness of the material, is more fragile than the carbon filament, and consequently metallized lamps require greater care in packing and handling than the carbon type. The best efficiency of the metallized-filament lamp is about 2.5 watts per candle, and the life of the average lamp under good conditions of regulation is about 560 hours.
The process of manufacturing the tantalum lamp is similar to that of the carbon lamp. On account of the great length of filament required to obtain the necessary resistance, it has heretofore been impossible to make lamps of very high voltage or very low candlepower. At present lamps are obtainable in 20 and 40-candlepower units at voltages between 100 and 130 volts. At present the best efficiency of the larger lamps is about two watts per candle, with a life of about 800 to 900 hours. Recently the lamp has been improved to such a point that it may be used on alternating currents at the same efficiency as on direct current, though with a reduced life. Under ordinary conditions and on 60 cycles the life should average about 60 per cent. of the life on direct-current circuits under the same conditions.
The tungsten lamp, one of the latest productions to be placed on the market, follows in form the lines of the familiar carbon lamp. Its usefulness at present seems to be confined entirely to street lighting, where the conditions most nearly suit its peculiar properties. The efficiency of the lamp is l 1/3 watts per candle, and the life on well-regulated circuits about 1,000 hours.
Curves were shown of comparisons between the results which may be obtained from the perfected carbon lamp and the higher efficiency type. The newer lamps show much better maintenance of initial candlepower than does the carbon lamp. In respect to relative costs of operating, it is shown that at one cent per kilowatt-hour the carbon lamp cannot