Publication: American Institute Of Electrical Engineers
New York, NY, United States
LONG DISTANCE TRANSMISSION AT 10,000 VOLTS.
(THE POMONA PLANT.)
BY GEORGE HERBERT WINSLOW.
The Pomona plant was installed in the summer and fall of 1892 for the San Antonio Light and Power Company, of Pomona, Cal. It was increased in the following spring, and early last year the capacity of the plant was doubled by duplicating the entire equipment. At the present time, when the plant has been in regular operation for more than two years, and its complete success has established confidence in the successful outcome of many similar projects of greater magnitude, it seems fitting to present a careful description of the entire installation. The electric plant was installed under the personal direction of the writer, as electrical engineer, who presents many of his personal observations on its construction and operation.
The plant is used to transmit energy from a waterfall to substations at Pomona, 13 3/4 miles distant, and San Bernardino, 281 miles distant, from which points it is distributed for incandescent and arc lighting. It consists of a Pelton water power plant and a Westinghouse alternating current transmission plant in which generators supply currents to sets of raising and lowering transformers operating at 10,000 volts, and delivering current to the local circuits at 1,000 volts.
The water power for this plant is derived from the San Antonio creek, which is chiefly supplied by the melting snows and the rains on San Antonio Mountain. Side canyons, however, also furnish some water. The creek flows for several miles through a narrow valley at the upper end of the San Antonio canyon in a bed which it has washed for itself in the layer of boulders and gravel formed by the action of an immensely larger stream in past ages.
At the lower end of the valley, a sharp ridge extends eastward from the side of a neighboring mountain, from which it originally split off, and blocks up the valley except at a narrow place at which bed-rock is exposed, and through which the stream plunges suddenly downward at least 90 feet between precipitous walls of rock, forming the San Antonio Falls.
To utilize this fall, part of the water is diverted by a dam about 200 feet above the falls into a canal which conducts the water to a tunnel passing through the ridge. At the other end of this tunnel, the water enters a large pipe leading to the powerhouse, which is located 412 feet below the level of the outlet of the tunnel.
The pipe is of sheet steel, double-riveted throughout, and was delivered on the ground in sections having a length of 11 feet 6 inches. These sections consist of four sheets, each three feet long.
The diameter of the pipe up to within 450 feet of the powerhouse is 30", with the exception of the length which connects it to the sand-box at the top of the pipe, which length is considerably expanded, so as to allow the water to flow slower on entering, and thus to reduce the entrainment of air. Near the power-house a "reducer" is inserted in the pipe to reduce the diameter to 24", and this size is maintained from this point to the power-house. The pipe was designed to carry 2000 miner's inches of water (measured under a head of 6 inches), without unnecessary loss by friction. The capacity is equivalent to 50 cubic feet per second, or 1882 H.P. at 390 feet effective head, as